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They were against German unification because they felt a united Germany might fall victim to revolutionary ideas. Covered by the friendly sand? [11], Heine's parents were not particularly devout. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (German: [ˈhaɪ̯n.ʁɪç ˈhaɪ̯.nə] (listen); born Harry Heine; 13 December 1797 – 17 February 1856) was a German poet, writer and literary critic. "There was an old rumor, propagated particularly by anti-Semites, that Heine's Jewish name was Chaim, but there is no evidence for it". Political life in Germany was divided between conservatives and liberals. My Fräulein!, be gay, "[80], In the 1890s, amidst a flowering of affection for Heine leading up to the centennial of his birth, plans were made to honor Heine with a memorial; these were strongly supported by one of Heine's greatest admirers, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress of Austria. Leben und Werk - Zeittafel . He would not leave what he called his "mattress-grave" (Matratzengruft) until his death eight years later. Starting from the mid-1820s, Heine distanced himself from Romanticism by adding irony, sarcasm, and satire into his poetry, and making fun of the sentimental-romantic awe of nature and of figures of speech in contemporary poetry and literature. Börne was the idol of German immigrant workers in Paris. [19] Heine also made valuable acquaintances in Berlin, notably the liberal Karl August Varnhagen and his Jewish wife Rahel, who held a leading salon. Do not smile at the visionary who anticipates the same revolution in the realm of the visible as has taken place in the spiritual. He almost reached me. [37] Heine was also attracted by the prospect of freedom from German censorship and was interested in the new French utopian political doctrine of Saint-Simonianism. [4] Heine's father, Samson Heine (1764–1828), was a textile merchant. [50] Thereafter Heine and Marx maintained a sporadic correspondence, but in time their admiration for one another faded. He also acquired a lifelong love for Rhenish folklore.[12]. )[70], In 1835, 98 years before Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party seized power in Germany, Heine wrote in his essay "The History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany":[71], Christianity – and that is its greatest merit – has somewhat mitigated that brutal Germanic love of war, but it could not destroy it. Most German states were absolutist monarchies with a censored press. The conservatives, who were in power, wanted to restore things to the way they were before the French Revolution. Am Kreuzweg wird begraben Heine looked down on these writers on aesthetic grounds – they were bad poets in his opinion – but his verse of the 1840s became more political too. [28] For example, the poem "Allnächtlich im Traume" was set to music by Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn. [29] An example are these lines: Das Fräulein stand am Meere His mother Peira (known as "Betty"), née van Geldern (1771–1859), was the daughter of a physician. This led to a wave of anti-Semitic persecution. Als Journalist begründete er moderne literarische Formen wie das Feuilleton. In fact, he had never claimed to be an atheist. A Winter's Tale) and Atta Troll: Ein Sommernachtstraum (Atta Troll: A Midsummer Night's Dream). "West German Universities: What to Call Them? Nevertheless, he made a point of stressing his love for his Fatherland: Plant the black, red, gold banner at the summit of the German idea, make it the standard of free mankind, and I will shed my dear heart's blood for it. The university had engaged the famous literary critic and thinker August Wilhelm Schlegel as a lecturer and Heine heard him talk about the Nibelungenlied and Romanticism. Manche Indizien sprechen für den 31. Und als Totenlampen schweben His father was a Da ein Brand alle Familiendokumente vernichtete, ist das genaue Geburtsdatum des Harry Heine, Sohn des Düsseldorfer Kaufmanns Samson Heine und dessen Frau Betty, bis heute nicht bekannt. 1814 verließ er das Gymnasium ohne Abschluss, absolvierte im Folgejahr ein kaufmännisches Praktikum und machte 1816 eine Lehre im Bankhaus seines Onkels in Hamburg. In 1824 Heine began a historical novel, Der Rabbi von Bacherach, which he never managed to finish. Another memorial, a sculpted fountain, was commissioned for Düsseldorf. Under palms will I be buried? Der Lyriker und Schriftsteller gilt als Vollender und Überwinder der deutschen Romantik. [48][49], In October 1843, Heine's distant relative and German revolutionary, Karl Marx, and his wife Jenny von Westphalen arrived in Paris after the Prussian government had suppressed Marx's radical newspaper. Heinrich Heine, German poet whose international literary reputation and influence were established by the Buch der Lieder (1827; The Book of Songs), frequently set to music, though the more sombre poems of his last years are also highly regarded. This talisman is fragile, and the day will come when it will collapse miserably. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— [61] He bore his sufferings stoically and he won much public sympathy for his plight. Düsseldorf was then a small town with a population of around 16,000. [1] He spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Und sehe dich freundlich grüßen, [46], Heine continued to write reports for Cotta's Allgemeine Zeitung (and, when Cotta died, for his son and successor). In 1816 Heine moved to Hamburg to become an apprentice at Heckscher & Co, his uncle's bank, but displayed little aptitude for business. Suicide’s flower. At the cross-road will be buried I wake; it is gone; the dream is blurred, He had little interest in French literature and wrote everything in German, subsequently translating it into French with the help of a collaborator. Initially it was thought he might be a "popular monarch" and during this honeymoon period of his early reign (1840–42) censorship was relaxed. Nevertheless, they still fell foul of the authorities. In the play it is the Muslim Hassan, who is saying these words, when he heard that the Christian conquerors had burned the scriptures of the Quran at the marketplace of Granada. [23], On 28 June 1825 Heine converted to Protestantism. When the revolution collapsed, Heine resumed his oppositional stance. [42], Heine had had few serious love affairs, but in late 1834 he made the acquaintance of a 19-year-old Paris shopgirl, Crescence Eugénie Mirat, whom he nicknamed "Mathilde". Wo wird einst des Wandermüden Due to such debates, the city of Tel Aviv delayed naming a street for Heine, and the street finally chosen to bear his name is located in a rather desolate industrial zone rather than in the vicinity of Tel Aviv University, suggested by some public figures as the appropriate location. [84] Also, after years of controversy,[85] the University of Düsseldorf was named Heinrich Heine University. [51][52] Heine always had mixed feelings about communism. Heine's play William Ratcliff was used for the libretti of operas by César Cui (William Ratcliff) and Pietro Mascagni (Guglielmo Ratcliff). You look at me with wistful woe, Buried by a stranger's hand? Heinrich Heine war ein deutscher Schriftsteller.Er lebte in der Zeit der Romantik und hat viele Gedichte und Lieder geschrieben. ca. It contains the second cycle of North Sea poems, a prose essay on the North Sea as well as a new work, Ideen: Das Buch Le Grand, which contains the following satire on German censorship:[31][32], The German Censors  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— If the two countries understood one another there would be progress. [74] Editors for the Völkischer Beobachter referred to Heine's writing as degenerate on multiple occasions as did Alfred Rosenberg. 53 gehörte, wird er geboren. Here the poet experienced an aristocratic snobbery absent elsewhere. [53], In October–December 1843, Heine made a journey to Hamburg to see his aged mother and to patch things up with Campe with whom he had had a quarrel. And shake your golden curls; Bust of Heinrich Heine, Sankt Goarshausen at the foot of the Lorelei rock, Heine statue in Toulon; commissioned by Elisabeth of Bavaria for Achilleion, it was removed by Wilhelm II. [72], Heine's writings were abhorred by the Nazis and one of their political mouthpieces, the Völkischer Beobachter, made noteworthy efforts to attack him. Heinrich Heine stellte die These auf: „Jetzt gilt es die höchsten Interessen des Lebens selbst, die Revolution tritt in die Literatur!“ Die Anhänger dieser These wie Heine, Börne, Mundt, Laube, Wienbarg, Herwegh und Gutzkow gingen als Gruppe „Junges Deutschland“ in die Geschichte ein. Im Mondenschein bewegte sich langsam Julius Campe and first literary successes. A garland of cypress for token. Sein sie munter, 1797 - 17.2.1856 in Paris, was one of the most significant German poets, writers and journalists of the 19th century. Aktuelle Seite: Biographie. Dezember 1797 als erster Sohn eines jüdischen Textilkaufmanns in Düsseldorf geboren. The most popular of Heine's political poems was his least typical, Die schlesischen Weber ("The Silesian Weavers"), based on the uprising of weavers in Peterswaldau in 1844. And forgotten the word that was spoken. Die Kinder wuchsen gemeinsam in einem, von jüdischer Aufklärung g… By the setting sun Und schüttelst das blonde Köpfchen; ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— [56], Atta Troll was not published until 1847, but Deutschland appeared in 1844 as part of a collection Neue Gedichte ("New Poems"), which gathered all the verse Heine had written since 1831. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— Start/Stop. There grows a blue flower, WDR Stichtag: Heinrich Heine – Seine Waffe war die Feder, Deutschlandfunk Kalenderblatt: Heinrich Heine – Feind aller Gesinnungshuberei, Wikipedia: Heinrich Heine in der freien Enzyklopädie, Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf geboren.am ›, Cimetière de Montmartre (Nordfriedhof), Paris, Frankreich. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——    idiots    ——  —— It was the biggest, most cosmopolitan city he had ever visited (its population was about 200,000). Rest assured, I love the Fatherland just as much as you do. Heinrich Heine »La chose la plus importante, c'est que je suis né« – Hauptsache geboren. Liszt took this as an attempt to extort money for a positive review and did not meet Heine. Und das Wort hab ich vergessen. Or upon the well-loved beaches, Heine thought that such an image suited the oppressive German authorities. The market for literary works was small and it was only possible to make a living by writing virtually non-stop. Heine was born on 13 December 1797, in Düsseldorf,[2] in what was then the Duchy of Berg, into a Jewish family. Bild »Wolfram von Eschenbach« [M]: gemeinfrei — Zeichenerklärung: [M] bearbeitet — Lizenztexte: CC BY-SA 3.0 — Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf geboren.am ›. ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  ——  —— It had been the capital of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, but was under French occupation at the time of his birth. He probably gave Heine and other young students the idea that history had a meaning which could be seen as progressive. He had a sister, Charlotte, and two brothers, Gustav Heine von Geldern (later Baron Heine-Geldern and publisher of the Viennese newspaper Fremden-Blatt [de]) and Maximilian, who became a physician in Saint Petersburg. And the stars that swing in heaven It contains the ironic disillusionment typical of Heine: Allnächtlich im Traume seh ich dich, 1803 in Düsseldorf; † 15. In February 1837, Börne died. Thus Heine's formative years were spent under French influence. However, the relationship between author and publisher started well: Campe published the first volume of Reisebilder ("Travel Pictures") in May 1826. Mit einem Klick auf werden die Links der Zeittafel in neuen Fenstern geöffnet. Heine was a radical liberal and one of the first things he did after his arrival was to take part in a parade which violated the Carlsbad Decrees, a series of measures introduced by Metternich to suppress liberal political activity. Letzte Ruhestätte sein? [5] Heine was also a third cousin once removed of philosopher and economist Karl Marx, also born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in later life.[6]. Daraufhin immatrikulierte er … At first he had some hope Louis Napoleon might be a good leader in France but he soon began to share the opinion of Marx towards him as the new emperor began to crack down on liberalism and socialism. Since Heine was not very religious in outlook he soon lost interest, but he also began to investigate Jewish history. [38][39], Heine soon became a celebrity in France. This volume included Die Harzreise, which marked a new style of German travel-writing, mixing Romantic descriptions of nature with satire. Heinrich was the eldest of four children. Shall I lie in desert reaches, In May 1848, Heine, who had not been well, suddenly fell paralyzed and had to be confined to bed. Heine regarded Börne, with his admiration for Robespierre, as a puritanical neo-Jacobin and remained aloof from him in Paris, which upset Börne, who began to criticise him (mostly semi-privately). He was sceptical about the Frankfurt Assembly and continued to attack the King of Prussia. Am Kreuzweg stand ich und seufzte; Here he learned French, which would be his second language - although he always spoke it with a German accent. You breathe in my ear a secret word, He was also a republican, while Heine was not. The Prussian government, angry at the publication of Vorwärts, put pressure on France to deal with its authors, and Marx was deported to Belgium in January 1845. Heinrich Heine in Düsseldorf. The adult Heine would always be devoted to the French for introducing the Napoleonic Code and trial by jury. No one expected it to become one of the most popular books of German verse ever published, and sales were slow to start with, picking up when composers began setting Heine's poems as Lieder. He is considered part of the Young Germany movement. Zu dieser Zeit war Monarchie die herrschende Staatsform. Heinrich Heine wurde am 13. Heine, Heinrich - Zur Beruhigung (Gedichtinterpretation) - Referat : und vier Städte aufgeteilt, die Deutscher Bund genannt werden. The Works of Heinrich Heine (1906) by Heinrich Heine, translated by Charles Godfrey Leland Shakespeare's Maidens and Women SHAKESPEARE'S MAIDENS AND WOMEN TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. Though he would later mock Schlegel, Heine found in him a sympathetic critic for his early verses. [16], Heine was more interested in studying history and literature than law. Heine reluctantly began a relationship with her. Performers revel in premiere of Tyberg songs. The teardrops like to pearls. I throw myself, weeping aloud and weak ("That was but a prelude; where they burn books, they will ultimately burn people as well." In London he cashed a cheque from his uncle for £200 (equal to £17,442 today), much to Salomon's chagrin. [21][22], In May 1823 Heine left Berlin for good and joined his family at their new home in Lüneburg. At that uproar the eagles of the air will drop dead, and lions in the remotest deserts of Africa will hide in their royal dens. [58], In 1844, Heine wrote series of musical feuilletons over several different music seasons discussing the music of the day. The aristocratic poet August von Platen had been annoyed by some epigrams by Immermann which Heine had included in the second volume of Reisebilder. At your sweet feet, my dearest. [17], After a year at Bonn, Heine left to continue his law studies at the University of Göttingen. He made many famous acquaintances (the closest were Gérard de Nerval and Hector Berlioz) but he always remained something of an outsider. German poetry took a more directly political turn when the new Frederick William IV ascended the Prussian throne in 1840. [54] At the time, Heine was working on two linked but antithetical poems with Shakespearean titles: Deutschland: Ein Wintermärchen (Germany. He was only really suited to writing but it was extremely difficult to be a professional writer in Germany. I stood at the cross-road and sighed In any event, Heine's conversion, which was reluctant, never brought him any benefits in his career. He also experienced difficulties with his eyes. Reisebilder II appeared in April 1827. Heine's relationship with his fellow dissident Ludwig Börne was troubled. Die Armesünderblum. It will one day be said that Heine and I have been by far the first artists of the German language. In November of that year, the German Diet consequently banned publication of works by the Young Germans in Germany and – on Metternich's insistence – Heine's name was added to their number. He counter-attacked by writing a play, Der romantische Ödipus, which included anti-Semitic jibes about Heine. Here he began to write the poems of the cycle Die Heimkehr ("The Homecoming"). Heine was incapable of doing this so he never had enough money to cover his expenses. Heine was stung and responded by mocking Platen's homosexuality in Die Bäder von Lucca. [65] During these final years Heine had a love affair with the young Camille Selden, who visited him regularly. ca. And from behind it returns. [75] Correspondingly, during the rise of the Third Reich, Heine's writings were banned and burned. The laws of the time stated that any book under 320 pages had to be submitted to censorship (the authorities thought long books would cause little trouble as they were unpopular). The highest conception of the lyric poet was given to me by Heinrich Heine. I'd read his journals, where he tells of Chopin, going for a drive, the poet Heine dropping in, a refugee from Germany. His review of the musical season of 1844, written in Paris on 25 April of that year, is his first reference to Lisztomania, the intense fan frenzy directed toward Franz Liszt during his performances. Oder ruh ich an der Küste Heinrich Heine hatte drei Geschwister: Charlotte (geb. [8] Upon Napoleon's downfall in 1815 it became part of Prussia. Immerhin! Under lindens on the Rhine? In 1822 it introduced a law excluding Jews from academic posts and Heine had ambitions for a university career. It was first ruled by Joachim Murat, then by Napoleon himself. Heine left Germany for France in 1831, settling in Paris for the remainder of his life. The university gave Heine access to notable cultural figures as lecturers: the Sanskritist Franz Bopp and the Homer critic F. A. Wolf, who inspired Heine's lifelong love of Aristophanes. In December Heine met the Marxes and got on well with them. Heinrich Heine (Harry Heine), 13.12. the lyrics of “Die Lorelei”) in an effort to dismiss and hide Jewish contribution to German art and culture. To commemorate the terrible event, one of the most famous lines of Heine's 1821 play Almansor was engraved in the ground at the site: "Das war ein Vorspiel nur, dort wo man Bücher verbrennt, verbrennt man auch am Ende Menschen." Aufgewachsen ist Heine in Frankfurt a.M. und in Hamburg, wo er auch die Schule besuchte. The Marx family settled in Rue Vaneau. [citation needed]. In 2006 Philips/Universal launched a republication on CD. Campe was reluctant to publish uncensored books as he had bad experiences with print runs being confiscated. Plaque at the Nazi book burning memorial on Bebelplatz in Berlin, Germany with a quote from Heinrich Heine's play Almansor (written 1821–1822). This led to the emergence of popular political poets (so-called Tendenzdichter), including Hoffmann von Fallersleben (author of Deutschlandlied, the German anthem), Ferdinand Freiligrath and Georg Herwegh. [60] It had been suggested that he suffered from multiple sclerosis or syphilis, although in 1997 it was confirmed through an analysis of the poet's hair that he had suffered from chronic lead poisoning. [9][10] Heine greatly admired Napoleon as the promoter of revolutionary ideals of liberty and equality and loathed the political atmosphere in Germany after Napoleon's defeat, marked by the conservative policies of Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich, who attempted to reverse the effects of the French Revolution. Atta Troll's cubs embody the nationalistic views Heine loathed. [81] This statue, originally located at Achilleion, Empress Elisabeth's palace in Corfu, was later removed by Kaiser Wilhelm II after he acquired Achilleion in 1907,[82] but it eventually found a home in Toulon. A play will be performed in Germany which will make the French Revolution look like an innocent idyll. Yet, it will come and when you hear a crashing such as never before has been heard in the world's history, then you know that the German thunderbolt has fallen at last. Initially, any book which had passed the censor in a German state was able to be sold in any of the other states, but in 1834 this loophole was closed. (Poetic translation by Hal Draper). A Heine Appreciation Society is active in Israel, led by prominent political figures from both the left and right camps. The opponents of the conservatives, the liberals, wanted to replace absolutism with representative, constitutional government, equality before the law and a free press. Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (* 13.Dezember 1797 als Harry Heine in Düsseldorf, Herzogtum Berg; † 17. [24][25], Heine now had to search for a job. Was anderen Menschen wichtig ist, so zum Beispiel Religion, Vaterland und Gesellschaft, verhöhnte er. He is best known outside Germany for his early lyric poetry, which was set to music in the form of lieder (art songs) by composers such as Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert. [57] In the same year Uncle Salomon died. In the French edition of "Lutetia" Heine wrote, one year before he died: "This confession, that the future belongs to the Communists, I made with an undertone of the greatest fear and sorrow and, oh!, this undertone by no means is a mask! He possessed that divine malice without which I cannot imagine perfection... And how he employs German! It was part of Hanover, ruled by the King of England, the power Heine blamed for bringing Napoleon down. Das ist ein altes Stück; Then I went back to my place and wrote my work, I Met Heine on the Rue Fürstemberg. It was the last time Heine would ever leave France. The French government, aiming at imperialism in the Middle East and not wanting to offend the Catholic party, had failed to condemn the outrage. "Religion and Philosophy in Germany" describes the replacement of traditional "spiritualist" religion by a pantheism that pays attention to human material needs. In the isolation he felt after the Börne debacle, Marx's friendship came as a relief to Heine, since he did not really like the other radicals. Das Volk wehrte sich nicht gegen die Monarchen. [36] This back-and-forth ad hominem literary polemic has become known as the Platen affair [de]. Eines Meeres in dem Sand? Im Frieden von Versailles erkennt Großbritannien 1783 die amerikanische Unabhängigkeit an. God has given [3] He was called "Harry" in childhood but became known as "Heinrich" after his conversion to Lutheranism in 1825. Nightly I see you in dreams – you speak, As Heine said in self-justification, his conversion was "the ticket of admission into European culture". Jahrhunderts. November 1886 in Wien), Gustav wurde später zum Baron Heine-Geldern und zum Herausgeber des Wiener Fremden-Blattssowie Maximilian (geb. Liszt was not the only musician to be blackmailed by Heine for the nonpayment of "appreciation money". Nachts die Sterne über mir. Zwei Jahre später eröffnete er ein Manufakturgeschäft in Hamburg, das bankrott ging. Then the ancient stony gods will rise from the forgotten debris and rub the dust of a thousand years from their eyes, and finally Thor with his giant hammer will jump up and smash the Gothic cathedrals. [63] In 1848 Heine also returned to religious faith. While at first the plan met with enthusiasm, the concept was gradually bogged down in anti-Semitic, nationalist, and religious criticism; by the time the fountain was finished, there was no place to put it. Heine frequented some Saint-Simonian meetings after his arrival in Paris but within a few years his enthusiasm for the ideology – and other forms of utopianism – had waned. Suicide’s flower. For the German train route, see.

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